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Rudolph Hermann Eisenmenger, Gobelin 'Du bist Deutschland'

Rudolph Hermann Eisenmenger, Gobelin 'Du bist Deutschland' Rudolph Hermann Eisenmenger, Gobelin 'Du bist Deutschland' Rudolph Hermann Eisenmenger, Gobelin 'Du bist Deutschland'

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Price:€ 430000.00

Description

Gobelin 'Du bist Deutschland'
(photo at the right: the gobelin in the atelier of the tapistry-restorer).

Large gobelin ordered (and paid) for Hitler's birthday in 1945. Not delivered due to Hitlers suicide. Destinated for the Neue Reichskanzlei. 
Size 2,85 x 2,4 meter, hand-woven by 'Wiener Gobelin-Manufaktur'.
Described in the book 'Die Tapisserie im Nationalsozialismus', by Dr. Anja Prölss-Kammerer, 2000, as well as in 'Wiener Gobelin-Manufaktur 1921-1987. Geschichte einer Manufaktur', 1996, by Anita Gallian.

Left: Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger, Gobelin 'Du Bist Deutschland', depicted in 'Wiener Gobelin-Manufaktur 1921-1987. Geschichte einer Manufaktur', 1996, by Anita Gallian.
Right: 'Du Bist Deutschland', discribed at page 341 in the book 'Die Tapisserie im Nationalsozialismus', by Dr. Anja Prölss-Kammerer, 2000.
  


Wiener Gobelinmanufaktur
Wiener Gobelinmanufaktur, 1921–1987, based in the Wiener Hofburg Imperial Palace, was founded after WWI by August Mader and the painter Robin Christian Andersen. Tapestry work by the Wiener Gobelinmanufaktur can be seen in the Vienna State Opera, the Festspielhaus in the city of Salzburg, the Austrian Museum of Applied Art in Vienna and in several ministries. Works by the Wiener Gobelinmanufaktur have been exported to America, Great Britain and Switzerland. The list of artists who worked for the Wiener Gobelinmanufaktur included: R. Chr. Anderson, A. Faistauer, A.P. Gütersloh, Oskar Kokoschka, Fritz Wotruba and Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger.

- condition : II perfect condition*                   
- size : 2,85 x 2,4 meter
- signed : hand-woven by Wiener Gobelinmanufaktur
- type : Gobelin                                             
- misc. : cleaning, conservation and new lining in 2016/ 2017



* The tapestry has been professional cleaned by a top gobelin restorer. Some small parts were restored and a lining was applied. The gobelin is in extremely good condition, the colours have hardly faded. This is probably because it has not been displayed since 1945, but instead has been stored (and rolled up) appropriately.


'Wie Hagen den Schatz der Nibelungen im Rhein versenken ließ'
Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger, ‘Wie Hagen den Schatz der Nibelungen im Rhein versenken ließ’ (‘How the Treasures of the Nibelung Were Lowered into the Rhein’). This is one of a triptych of tapestries ordered by Joseph Goebbels in 1943, and finished in 1945. The image shows the sinking of the Nibelung treasure in the Rhine: the mythical warlord Hagen of Tronje at the bow of a ship while his warriors throw the Nibelung treasure into the Rhine. Eisenmenger designed three gobelins with scenes from the first episode of the Nibelungen epic: ‘Siegfried und Krimhild fahren zur Hochzeit nach Xanten’, ‘Siegfried nimmt von Krimhild Abschied um zur Jagd auszuziehen’, and ‘Hagen versenkt den Schatz der Nibelungen im Rhein’. By the time that the ‘Hagen-Gobelin’ was delivered to Goebbels in March 1945, the Soviet army was closing in on Berlin; Goebbels committed suicide a few weeks later. The two other Gobelins were never delivered. Produced by the Wiener Gobelin-Manufaktur, size 2.25 by 4.20 meter.
‘Wie Hagen den Schatz der Nibelungen im Rhein versenken ließ’, considered lost but rediscovered in 2006, was displayed at the exhibition ‘Hitler and the Germans: Nation and Crime’, 2010/2011, at the German Historical Museum.
  


Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger, ‘Sommerabend’ (‘Summer Evening’). GDK 1941 room 15. Bought for 18,000 Reichsmarks by Joseph Goebbels. Depicted in 'Die Kunst für alle', 1940/41.



Right: Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger, ‘Drei Frauen am Brunnen’ (‘Three Women at Source’), postcard.  GDK 1943 room 15. Bought for 16,000 Reichsmarks by Landesgewerbeanstalt Westmark, Kaiserslautern. Depicted in 'Die Kunst für alle', 1942/43.
Right: 'Drei Frauen am Brunnen', a photo taken at the Grosse Deutsche Kunstausstellung in 1943. The photo is depicted on the cover of book 'Grosse Deutsche Kunstausstellung München 1937 - 1944, by Robert Thoms, 2010.
  


Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger working on 'Drei Frauen am Brunnen'.
The pictures are from the movie 'Art in the Third Reich', part II (at 6.47).
  



Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger, ‘Wanduhr’ (‘The Wall Clock’), ‘Karton für ein Fresko im Hause der Landesführung des Reichsarbeitsdienstes’ (‘Carton for a fresco in the head office of the Reich Labour Service’). In this work Eisenmenger depicted the different stages of life, as an analogy with clock’s face, around a nude blond woman, the personification of the Purity of Race: Hitler Youth, Labor services, Military service and Motherhood. At the first place the woman is depicted in her natural role as a mother. Before the sun, as a symbol of a new beginning, she takes care of the continuation of the race. The growing German youth becomes a Hitler Youth and is trained for his later position in the national German community. As soldiers, farmers, and female-farmers, they work the soil and maintain the German culture, as the music and dance scene shows. The circle ends with a picture of an old man, after which the mother with a baby again follows.
Depicted in ‘Art of the Third Reich’, Peter Adam and in ‘Kunst dem Volk’, 1939.



‘Scende la notte’.
Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger, ‘Sinkende Nacht’ (‘Falling Night’). GDK 1937 room 25. Also displayed at the Biennale di Venezia, XX Esposizione Internazionale D’Arte 1936 with the name ‘Scende la notte’. Depicted in 'Kunst für alle', 1937. Awarded the Golden Ehrenmedaille des Künstlerhauses in 1936, Vienna).




Left: Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger, ‘Pecoraia’ (‘Shepherdess’). Displayed at the Biennale di Venezia, XXII Esposizione Internazionale D’Arte 1940. Depicted in the official art catalogue. Also depicted in 'Die Kunst im Deutschen Reich', 1941.
Right: the work 'Pecoraia' in color. Photo: Galleria d'Arte Thule, Italy.
   


Above: Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger, ‘Heimkehr der Ostmark I’ (‘Austria Returning to its German Homeland’). GDK 1941 room 2. Located in the festival hall of the town hall of Vienna. Length 7 meters. Depicted in 'Die Kunst im Deutschen Reich', 1941.
Below: Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger, ‘Heimkehr der Ostmark II’ (‘Austria Returning to its German Homeland’). GDK 1941 room 2. Length 7 meters.





Ritratta su fondo dorato
Left: Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger, ‘Bildnis auf goldenem Grund’ (‘Portrait with Golden Background’). GDK 1938 room 34. The painting was awarded the Rom Prize in 1929. ‘Ritratta su fondo dorato’ was displayed at the Biennale di Venezia, XXII Esposizione Internazionale D’Arte 1940. Depicted in 'Die Kunst im Deutschen Reich', 1941. The work is lost.
Right: Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger, ‘Laufer vor dem Ziel’ (‘Runners at the Finishing Line’). The painting was awarded the silver medal at the Olympic Games in 1936, Berlin. It was bought by the Tokyo Society of Art and Sport. Depicted in 'Kunst für alle', 1937.
  


Left: Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger, ‘Die Nacht begleitet den Morgen’ (‘The Night Accompanies the Morning’). GDK 1942 room 14. In the possession of the German Historical Museum. Also displayed at the exhibition 'Jubiläumausstellung Künstlerhaus Wien', 1941/42; depicted in 'Die Kunst für alle', 1941/42. Awarded the Künstlerhaus-Jubileumpreis, 1941.
Right: Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger, ‘Abziehendes Gewitter’ (‘Leaving Thunderstorm’). GDK 1940 room 15. Bought by ‘Röchlingsche Eisen- und Stahlwerke GmbH‘ for 6,000 Reichsmarks.
     


Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger, ‘Mädchen, eine Blume haltend’ (‘Girl with Flower’). GDK 1944 room 24. Bought by a private individual for 9,000 Reichsmarks. Depicted in ‘Kunst im Deutschen Reich’, 1944.



Gobelins for the city of Chemnitz
In 1941 Eisenmenger was commissioned to create designs for three gobelins, destined for the Festival Hall of the City Hall of Chemnitz (finished and delivered in 1943/44).
Left: the first gobelin shows a young German man, under the Nazi flag, saying goodbye to his mother, wife and child to go to war. The text reads: ‘Dein Leben ist gebunden an das Leben deines ganzes Volkes’, meaning ‘Your life is connected to the life of a whole nation’.
Right: this third gobelin is devoted to the arts and culture. Under the coat of arms of the city of Chemnitz, forms of art are depicted, surrounded by cultural symbols of architecture, science, poetry, music and painting. The text reads: ‘Die wahre Kunst ist und bleibt in ihren leistungen immer eine ewige’, meaning ‘Real art is and stays forever’.
The second gobelin -not depicted- shows a healthy German family, under the coat of arms of the city of Chemnitz, surrounded by works of art from the Erzgebirge region. The text on the gobelin reads: ‘Die Kraft von uns allen liegt nicht in einem internationalen Phanton, sie liegt in unserer Heimat’, meaning (‘The power of all of us lies not in an international Phantom, it is our Homeland’). This gobelin was displayed at the exhibition ‘Deutsche Künstler und die SS’ in Breslau.
  


Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger, ‘Gang durch die Felder’ (‘Through the Fields’). Carton for a fresco. Depicted in ‘Kunst dem Volk’, 1939.


Above: Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger, ‘Feierabend’ (‘After Work’). Wall painting for the railroad station ‘Bahnhof Wels’, 1939. Depicted in ‘Die Kunst im Deutschen Reich’, 1939.
Below: Ruldof Hermann Eisenmenger, ‘Field Work’). Wall painting for the railroad station ‘Bahnhof Wels’, 1939. Depicted in ‘Die Kunst im Deutschen Reich’, 1939.





Left: Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger, ‘Aus dem Gestern steigt das Morgen’ (‘Yesterday Turns into Today’). Depicted on the cover of the ‘Illustrirte Zeitung Leipzig’, Christmas 1942.
Right: Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger’, ‘Sitzender Akt’ (‘Sitting Nude’). Displayed at the exhibition ‘Junge Kunst im Deutschen Reich’, Vienna 1943, organized by Reichsleiter Baldur von Schirach. Depicted in the official exhibition catalogue, as well as in ‘Kunst und Diktatur’, 1994, Jan Tabor.
  


Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger, 'Der Morgen' ('The Morning'). Displayed at the exhibition of the Künstlerhaus of Vienna in 1932. Depicted in 'Kunst für alle', 1937/1938.



Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger, 'Stiegenhausfresko' ('Starecase-fresco'), located in the director’s office of the company ‘Hörbiger Ventilwerke’, Vienna. Architects were Siegfreid Theiss and Hans Jaksch. Date of creation: 1951.
  



Left: Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger, ‘Die alte und die neue Welt’ (‘Old World and New World’), 1973. Gobelin located in the Technical University of Vienna. Executed by Manufactura de Tapecarias de Portalegre. Size 223 x 155 cm.
Right: Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger, ‘Glückliche Menschen’ (‘Happy People’), wall painting created in 1951. Located in Vienna,  Justgasse 6-14.
  


Vienna State Opera
After WWII, in 1951, Eisenmenger was commissioned to design a series of 13 tapestries for the Gustav Mahler Hall of the State Opera in Vienna (formerly known as the ‘Gobelin Hall’). The production of the gobelins with a surface of in total 171 m2, took 6 years. The design was inspired by Mozart’s Zauberflöte (‘The Magic Flute’). In the same opera house, he designed in 1955 the huge Iron Curtain (170 m2) with the main theme of the opera Orpheus and Eurydice by Christoph Willibald Gluck (Gluck, had been heralded as the regenerator of German music during the Third Reich).
Below: The Gustav Mahler Hall of the State Opera in Vienna. 


Below: the huge Iron Curtain (170 m2) designed by Eisenmenger.   
  


Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger, ‘Self-portrait’. GDK 1944 room 24. Depicted in ‘Kunst im Deutschen Reich’, 1944. In the possession of the Belvedere Museum, Vienna. Size 81 x 61 cm.



The extreme scarcity of National Socialistic art
Massive, systematic destruction of Nazi art since 1945: the Potsdam-Agreement
From 1933 to 1949 Germany experienced two massive art purges. Both the National Socialist government and OMGUS (the U.S. Military Government in Germany) were highly concerned with controlling what people saw and how they saw it. The Nazis eliminated what they called ‘Degenerate art’, erasing the pictorial traces of turmoil and heterogeneity that they associated with modern art. The Western Allies in turn eradicated ‘Nazi art’ and forbade all artworks military subjects or themes that could have military and/or chauvinist symbolism from pictorial representation. Both the Third Reich and OMGUS utilized the visual arts as instruments for the construction of new German cultural heritages.
The Potsdam Agreement of 2 August 1945, subparagraph 3, Part III, Section A stated that one purpose of the occupation of Germany was ‘to destroy the National Socialistic Party and its affiliated and supervised organizations and to dissolve all Nazi and militaristic activity or propaganda.’ In accordance with Allied Control Council laws and military government regulations, all documents and objects which might tend to revitalize the Nazi spirit or German militarism would be confiscated or destroyed. For example, Title 18, Military Government Regulation, OMGUS stated that: ‘all collections of works of art related or dedicated to the perpetuation of German militarism or Nazism will be closed permanently and taken into custody.’ As a consequence, thousands of paintings –portraits of Nazi-leaders, paintings containing a swastika or depicting military/war sceneries– were considered ‘of no value’ and destroyed. With knives, fires and hammers, they smashed countless sculptures and burned thousands of paintings. Around 8,722 artworks were shipped to military deposits in the U.S.
OMGUS regulated and censored the art world. The Information Control Division (ICD, the key structure in the political control of post-war German culture in the American zone) was in fact a non-violent version of the Reichskulturkammer (Reich Chamber of Culture). With its seven subdivisions (i.e. press, literature, radio, film, theatre, music, and art), the ICD neatly replaced the Reich Chamber of Culture. The ICD established through its various sections a system of licensed activity, with screening and vetting by Intelligence to exclude all politically undesirable people.

‘Free’ German artists producing ‘free German art’ after 1945
In the ideology of OMGUS, painting was conceived of as a strategic element in the campaign to politically re-educate the German people for a new democratic internationalism. Modern art allowed for the establishment of an easy continuity with the pre-Nazi modernist past, and it could serve as a springboard for the international projection of Germany as a new country interacting with its new Western partners.
‘Free’ artists producing ‘free art’ was one of the most powerful symbols of the new Germany, the answer to the politically controlled art of the Third Reich. Modern art linked Western Germany to Western Europe – separating the new West German aesthetic and politics from that of the Nazi era, the U.S.S.R., and East Germany – and suggested an ‘authentically’ German identity.


 

Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger
Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger (1902–1994) was an Austrian painter born in Semeria (Romania). His father was docter; his grandfather came from the region of Heilbron. In 1921 his family moved to Vienna, and in the same year Eisenmenger went to the Vienna Academy where he studied under Professor Hans Tichy and for four years as Meisterschühler under Rudolf Bacher. Study trips took him to Italy and Holland. Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger received several prizes, including the ‘Lampi Prize’ in 1923, the ‘Kleber Prize’ in 1925 and the ‘Prize of Rome’ in 1929. He was awarded this last prize for the work ‘Bildnis auf goldenem Grund’ (‘Portrait with Golden Background’ or ‘Ritratta su fondo dorato’), which later was also displayed at the XXII Esposizione Internationale D’arte in Venice 1940 (the work is lost). In 1930 he became the youngest person to ever become a member of the Künstlerhaus of Vienna. He held his first exhibition here in 1930 and two years later he had his breakthrough when he exhibited 32 canvases here. In 1933 he joined the NSDAP; he took part in the clandestine activities of the Nazi party in Austria before the Abschluss. In 1936 at the Olympic Exhibition in Berlin, his canvas entitled ‘Läufer vor dem Ziel’ (‘Runners at the Finishing Line’) won the silver medal. The painting was bought by the Tokyo Society of Art and Sport. Three years later he was appointed President of the Wiener Künstlerhaus by the Gauleiter of Vienna.
Eisenmenger created numerous frescos, inter alia: for the hall of honour at the jubilee exhibition of the Künstlerhaus (‘Das Leben’ and ‘Der Tod über allem Irdischen’, awarded in 1936 with the prize of the city of Vienna); for the casino in Baden, 24 fresco's in 1937 with the theme 'Looking for Luck' (plastered over in 1945); for the Wels railway station (‘Feldarbeit’ and ‘Feierabend’, 1938/39) and for the head office of the Reichsarbeitsdienst in Vienna (‘Wanduhr’).
For the festival hall of the Vienna Town Hall, he created ‘Die Heimkehr der Ostmark’ (‘Austria returning to its German homeland’), a painting reaching a length of 7 meters. In 1937 Eisenmenger was a member of the jury which was responsible for selecting works for the first Great German Art Exhibition. In 1942 he was awarded the Dürer Prize by the city of Nuremberg. A year later, upon the recommendation of Reichsleiter Baldur von Schirach and with the strong support of Goebbels, Eisenmenger was granted the professor title.
At the Great German Art Exhibitions, Eisenmenger was represented with 14 works which were bought for prices of up to 18,000 Reichsmarks (Goebbels). His most prominent works were ‘Sinkende Nacht’ (‘Falling Night’, GDK 1937 room 25, awarded the Golden Ehrenmedaille des Künstlerhauses in 1936, Vienna); ‘Sommerabend’ (‘Summer Evening’); ‘Drei Frauen am Brunnen’ (‘Three Women at Source’); ‘Heimkehr der Ostmark’ (‘Austria Returning to its German Homeland’, I and II); ‘Bildnis auf goldenem Grund’ (‘Portrait with Golden Background’); ‘Die Nacht begleitet den Morgen’ (‘The Night Accompanies the Morning’, awarded the  Künstlerhaus-Jubileumspreis, 1941) and ‘Abziehendes Gewitter’ (‘Leaving Thunderstorm’). A special about Eisenmenger in 'Die Kunst im Deutschen Reich', 1941, depicted several of these GDK-works.
Eisenmenger displayed one of his works at the Biennale di Venezia, XX Esposizione Internazionale D’Arte 1936: ‘Scende la notte’ (‘Falling of the Night’ or ‘Sinkende Nacht’, GDK 1937 room 25); two works at the Biennale di Venezia, XXI Esposizione Internazionale D’Arte 1938: ‘Ritratto di bambino’ (‘Portrait of a child’) and ‘La mia zia B.’ (‘My Aunt B.’); eight works at the Biennale di Venezia, XXII Esposizione Internazionale D’Arte 1940, including: ‘La sorgente’ (‘Source’), ‘Il ragazzo nella foresta’ (‘Forest’), ‘Pecoraia’ (‘Shepherdess’), ‘Piccolo ritratto di famiglia’ (‘Small Family Portrait’), ‘Ragazza con guanti neri’ (‘Girl with Blacks Gloves’), ‘Doppio ritratto’ (‘Double Portrait’), ‘Ritratta su fondo dorato’ (‘Portrait with Golden Background‘) and ’Ritratto del gioelliere Fischmeister’ (‘Portrait of the Jeweller Fischmeister’).
In 1943 he took part with two works in the exhibition ‘Junge Kunst im Deutschen Reich’, Vienna, organized by Reichsleiter Baldur von Schirach.
In 1944 he was represented at the exhibition ‘Deutsche Künstler und die SS’ in Breslau with his Gobelin ‘Heimat: Die Kraft von uns allen liegt nicht in einem internationalen Phantom – sie liegt in unserer Heimat’ (‘Homeland: The power of all of us lies not in an international Phantom – it is our homeland’). This was one of the three gobelins based on Eisenmenger’s designs destined for the Festival Hall of the City Hall of Chemnitz (finished and delivered in 1943/44).
In 1943 Joseph Goebbels ordered a triptych of tapestries, titled the ‘Nibelungen’. Eisenmenger designed three gobelins with scenes from the first episode of the Nibelungen epic: ‘Siegfried und Krimhild fahren zur Hochzeit nach Xanten’, ‘Siegfried nimmt von Krimhild Abschied um zur Jagd auszuziehen’, and ‘Hagen versenkt den Schatz der Nibelungen im Rhein’. The last gobelin, ‘How the Treasures of the Nibelung Were Lowered into the Rhein’, shows the mythical warlord Hagen of Tronje at the bow of a ship while his warriors throw the Nibelung treasure into the Rhine. By the time that the ‘Hagen-Gobelin’ was delivered to Goebbels in March 1945, the Soviet army was closing in on Berlin; Goebbels committed suicide a few weeks later. The two other gobelins, also produced by the Wiener Gobelin-Manufaktur, measuring 4.20 x 2.25 meters, were never delivered. This was also the fate of a fourth gobelin, depicting a huge eagle with a swastika, which was ordered for Hitler’s birthday in 1945 (meant for the Neue Reichskanzlei); this tapestry was ordered, fully paid for, executed but could not be delivered after Hitler’s suicide.
After WWII, in 1951, Eisenmenger was commissioned to design a series of 13 tapestries for the Gustav Mahler Hall of the State Opera in Vienna. The production of the gobelins with a surface of in total 171 m2, took six years. The design was inspired by Mozart's Zauberflöte (‘The Magic Flute’). In the same opera house, he designed in 1955 the huge Iron Curtain (170 m2) with the main theme of the opera Orpheus and Eurydice by Christoph Willibald Gluck (Gluck, had been heralded as the regenerator of German music during the Third Reich).
Also in 1951, Eisenmenger created a walpainting in the Presidentsroom of the Austrian Parlement in Vienna, and a 'Stiegenhausfresko' ('Staircase-fresco') in the director’s office of the company ‘Hörbiger Ventilwerke’ in Vienna. From 1951 until his death Eisenmenger created around 25 gobelins, mosaics and frescos for companies, churches, government institutions and banks mainly in Austria, but also in Turkey (1968) and The Netherlands (a gobelin in 1959 for the Unilever Building in Rotterdam).
In 1957 Eisenmenger was awarded the ‘Austrian Cross of Honour for Science and Art, 1st class’ (the ‘Österreichisches Ehrenzeichen für Wissenschaft und Kunst’ comprises 15 grades and is Austria’s highest national honour. It is conferred by the Republic of Austria to honour people who have rendered meritorious services to the country). From 1951 to 1972 he was professor of architectural design (and senator and dean) at the Technical College in Vienna. In 1973 he was awarded the ‘Grand Silver Medal for Services to the Republic of Austria’ (the ‘Ehrenzeichen für Verdienste um die Republik Österreich’). In 1989 Eisenmenger exhibited at the Peithner-Lichtenfels Gallery in Vienna.
Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger died in 1994 in Vienna.
The Belvedere Museum in Vienna owns his ‘Self-Portrait’ (GDK 1944 room 24). The Deutsches Historisches Museum in Berlin is in the possession of ‘Die Nacht begleitet den Morgen’ (‘The Night Accompanies the Morning’, GDK 1942 room 14). In 2003, on the occasion of his 100st birthday, the exhibition ‘Rudolf Hermann Eisenmenger’ was organized in the Erzbischofliches Dom und Diözesanmuseum in Vienna (‘Jubiläumsausstellung zum 100’. Geburtstag unter der Patronanz von S.E. Kardinal Dr. Franz König). The gobelin ‘Wie Hagen den Schatz der Nibelungen im Rhein versenken ließ’, considered lost but re-discovered in 2007, was displayed at the exhibition ‘Hitler and the Germans: Nation and Crime’, 2010/2011, German Historical Museum.