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Erich Mercker, Bau der neuen Reichskanzlei

Erich Mercker, Bau der neuen Reichskanzlei Erich Mercker, Bau der neuen Reichskanzlei Erich Mercker, Bau der neuen Reichskanzlei

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'Bau der neuen Reichskanzlei' ('Construction of the New Reich Chancellery')

Smaller version of Merckers painting displayed at the GDK 1940 room 12 (which is in the possession of the U.S. Army Center of Military History).


Extreme scarce work of art
Art works considered as overt propaganda were massively destroyed
As described below, in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement of August 1945, the Allied Control Council laws and military government regulations, all collections of works of art related or dedicated to the perpetuation of German militarism or Nazism, were destroyed. Thousands of paintings were considered of ‘no value’ and burned. Around 8,722 artworks were shipped to military deposits in the U.S. In 1986 the largest part was returned to Germany, with the exception of 200 paintings which were considered as overt propaganda: depictions of German Soldiers, war sceneries, swastika’s and portraits of Nazi leaders.


Eric Mercker, 'Bau der neuen Reichskanzlei', also named 'Voßstraße'. GDK 1940 room 12. Bought by Hitler for 4.500 Reichsmark. In the possession of the U.S. Army Military Center of Military History (the collection falls within the public domain). Size 150 x 125 cm.



Left: Construction of the New Reich Chancellery at 4 February 1938.
Right: another work by Mercker depicting the construction of the Neue Reichskanzlei. In the possession of the U.S. Army Military Center of Military History (the collection falls within the public domain).
  


 

- condition : II                    
- size : 60,5 x 50,5 cm, unframed 51 x 40,5 cm 
- signed : right under
- type : oil on board                               



Erich Mercker, ‘Grossbaustelle der OT. I‘ (‘Large construction site of the Organisation Todt I’). GDK 1944 room 12. Bought by Albert Speer for 10.000 Reichsmark. In the possession of the U.S. Army Center of Military History (collection/ depictions fall within the public domain). Size 203 x 139 cm.


Right: Erich Mercker, ‘Grossbaustelle der OT. II’ (‘Large construction site of the Organisation Todt II’. Depicted is the construction of a U-boat bunker. GDK 1944 room 12. In the possession of the U.S. Army Center of Military History (collection/ depictions fall within the public domain). Size 196 x 130 cm.




The extreme scarcity of National Socialistic art
Massive, systematic destruction of Nazi art since 1945: the Potsdam-Agreement
From 1933 to 1949 Germany experienced two massive art purges. Both the National Socialist government and OMGUS (the U.S. Military Government in Germany) were highly concerned with controlling what people saw and how they saw it. The Nazis eliminated what they called ‘Degenerate art’, erasing the pictorial traces of turmoil and heterogeneity that they associated with modern art. The Western Allies in turn eradicated ‘Nazi art’ and forbade all artworks military subjects or themes that could have military and/or chauvinist symbolism from pictorial representation. Both the Third Reich and OMGUS utilized the visual arts as instruments for the construction of new German cultural heritages.
The Potsdam Agreement of 2 August 1945, subparagraph 3, Part III, Section A stated that one purpose of the occupation of Germany was ‘to destroy the National Socialistic Party and its affiliated and supervised organizations and to dissolve all Nazi and militaristic activity or propaganda.’ In accordance with Allied Control Council laws and military government regulations, all documents and objects which might tend to revitalize the Nazi spirit or German militarism would be confiscated or destroyed. For example, Title 18, Military Government Regulation, OMGUS stated that: ‘all collections of works of art related or dedicated to the perpetuation of German militarism or Nazism will be closed permanently and taken into custody.’ As a consequence, thousands of paintings –portraits of Nazi-leaders, paintings containing a swastika or depicting military/war sceneries– were considered ‘of no value’ and destroyed. With knives, fires and hammers, they smashed countless sculptures and burned thousands of paintings. Around 8,722 artworks were shipped to military deposits in the U.S.
OMGUS regulated and censored the art world. The Information Control Division (ICD, the key structure in the political control of post-war German culture in the American zone) was in fact a non-violent version of the Reichskulturkammer (Reich Chamber of Culture). With its seven subdivisions (i.e. press, literature, radio, film, theatre, music, and art), the ICD neatly replaced the Reich Chamber of Culture. The ICD established through its various sections a system of licensed activity, with screening and vetting by Intelligence to exclude all politically undesirable people.

‘Free’ German artists producing ‘free German art’ after 1945
In the ideology of OMGUS, painting was conceived of as a strategic element in the campaign to politically re-educate the German people for a new democratic internationalism. Modern art allowed for the establishment of an easy continuity with the pre-Nazi modernist past, and it could serve as a springboard for the international projection of Germany as a new country interacting with its new Western partners.
‘Free’ artists producing ‘free art’ was one of the most powerful symbols of the new Germany, the answer to the politically controlled art of the Third Reich. Modern art linked Western Germany to Western Europe – separating the new West German aesthetic and politics from that of the Nazi era, the U.S.S.R., and East Germany – and suggested an ‘authentically’ German identity.


Erich Mercker, postcard*. Im Reiche der Hochöfen, GDK 1942, room 12.



Left: Erich Mercker, postcard, ‘Statten der Arbeit’.
Right: Erich Mercker, ‘Putzig bei Danzig’ (‘Putzig, small port-town near Danzig’). GDK 1943, room 5. Sold for 5.000 RM. World War II began with the shelling by the Germans of the Westerplatte, a peninsula in Danzig, on 1 September 1939. In 1941 Mercker, together with Claus Bergen, was ordered by the Reichspropagandaminsterium to paint cities and landscapes within the ‘Generalgouvernement’, the occupied area of the Second Republic of Poland that was under colonial administration of Nazi Germany from 1939 to 1945. It included much of central and southern Poland, and modern-day western Ukraine. During his journey in 1941 Mercker painted ‘Putzig bei Danzig’.
   

Erich Mercker, postcard, ‘Hochofen’ (‘Blast Furnaces’). A painting very similar to this one (’Riesen der Arbeit’) hung in the GDK 1938, room 12.







Erich Mercker, known for his depictions of Third Reich construction projects
Erich Mercker (1891–1973) was the son of a high-ranking Prussian officer and his family settled in Munich, Germany in 1906. Upon graduating high school, he studied at the Technische Hochschule Bauingenieurwesen (engineering) at the university in Munich and later in Berlin. World War I interrupted his studies. In 1915 he committed himself to painting and, despite being self-taught, he rapidly professionalised himself. From 1920 onwards he travelled to Austria, Italy, France, Sweden and Norway. In 1920 he was for the first time represented in the Münchner Glaspalast. Mercker painted landscapes and industrial scenes and factories in Germany (e.g., ports, iron melting fabrics, steelworks, building sites) in a neo-impressionistic style. 
When Hitler came to power, Mercker was asked to immortalize the immense construction projects that took place during the Nazi era. In May 1933 Mercker became member of the NSDAP. In March 1935 he created a large oil painting depicting the NSDAP Party building in Münich. This painting was hung in the Reichskanzlei in Berlin. Mercker won the 'Grosse Goldene Medaille' in 1937 at the World Exhibition in Paris for four monumental paintings of 5 by 4 metres in the German Pavillion: 'Nürnberg', 'Mangfallbrücke', 'Schiffshebewerk Niederfinow' and 'SS Party Rally' (only 22 works of German artist were displayed in the German Pavillion). Beginning in 1938, Erich Mercker was represented in the Great German Art Exhibitions with 34 works. His most well-known works from that era were: 'Die Stätte des 9. November', 1939 (Day of the Hitlerputsche), 'Marmor für die Reichskanzlei', 1940, 'Zeppelinfield im Bau', 1937, 'Baustelle Reichskanzlei', 1939, 'Hermann Göring Werke im Bau', 1941, 'Ein Rüstungswerk ensteht', 1943, 'U-Boote noch und noch', 1942 and 'Torpedoboote in der Werft' 1942. Adolf Hitler, Albert Speer, Robert Ley and Adolf wagner bought 15 of Mercker’s works for prices of up to 5,000 RM. One of Merckers paintings, ‘Vosstrasse’ -a picture of the construction of the New Reich Chancellery in Berlin- is still in possession of the US Army Center of Military History, Washinton DC.
At the XXIII Venice Biennale, 1942, Mercker displayed two works, including ‘Cave di marmo a Flossenburg’. This painting, ‘Granitbrüche Flosenbürg’, was earlier displayed at the GDK 1941, room 12 and bought by Hitler for 4.000 RM.
In 1944, when Mercker was bombed out of his house in Munich, he moved to the Allgäu. In 1954 he returned to Munich. He was a board member, and president, of the Münchner Künstlergenossenschaft. After 1945 he mainly painted commissioned works for large companies like MAN, Volkswagen and Bayer.
Nowadays the works of Mercker hang in several museums and institutions, including the Stadtmuseum Kiel, the Kurpfälzisches Museum in Heidelberg, the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nürnberg, the Stadtmuseum in Frankenthal, the Westpreußisches Landesmuseum Münster. In the possesion of the Deutsches Historisches Museum are: ‘Marmor für die Reichskanzlei‘ (GDK 1940 room 12), ‘Granitbrüche Flossenbürg‘ (GDK 1941 room 12), ‘Baustelle Reichskanzlei‘ (GDK 1939 room 12), ‘Märzfeld in Nürnberg‘ (GDK 1941 room 12), ‘Hermann Göring-Werke in Linz‘ (GDK 1941 room 12), ‘Ostmark-Almtalbrücke der Reichsautobahn‘ (GDK 1941 room 12), ‘Reichsautobahn Rohrbachbrücke‘ (GDK 1939 room 12) and ‘Grossbaustelle Märzfeld‘. In the possession of the Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen are: ‘Deutsche Industrie‘ and two landscapes by Mercker. The Grohmann Museum in Milwaukee, founded by the industrialst Eckhart G. Grohmann, owns 81 works of Erich Mercker.
Merckers work 'Granitbrüche Flossenburg' (GDK 1941 room 12) was displayed in 2012/ 13 at the the exhibition ‘Geschichten im Konflikt‘, 2012/ 13, held in the Haus der Kunst, Munich.

* As also stated in our General Terms and Conditions, German Art Gallery offers the depicted postcards for sale. Allmost all of these postcards are 'Haus der Deutschen Kunst' editions. Prices on request.