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Anton Grauel, Atlant

Anton Grauel, Atlant Anton Grauel, Atlant

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Description

'Atlant' ('Atlas')
Created in Frankfurt in 1926.
High-relief of shell-limestone (Muschelkalk).

In classical European architecture, an 'Atlant' (also known as an 'Atlas') is a support sculpted in the form of a man, which may take the place of a column, a pier or a pilaster. Atlantes express extreme effort in their function, heads bent forward to support the weight of the structure above them across their shoulders, forearms often lifted to provide additional support, providing an architectural motif. In Greek mythology Atlas was the Titan who was forced to hold the sky on his shoulders for eternity. The Roman term for such a sculptural support is Telamon, derived from a later mythological hero, Telamon, one of the Argonauts.

The Caryatid is the female precursor of this architectural form in Greece, a woman standing in the place of each column or pillar. Caryatids are found at the treasuries at Delphi and the Erechtheion on the Acropolis at Athens for Athene.

Anton Grauel created also a matching female counterpart in shell-limestone.
Left: the female counterpart of the male sculpture described above.
Right: the female counterpart figure in Grauels atelier in Berlin at 21 June 1936. Grauel left this sculpture in 1943 in the garden of his atelier in Berlin (the work is lost).
   
 

- condition : II                   
- size : height 88 cm, width 294, depth 24 cm
- signed : bought from the hiers of Anton Grauel (documentation on request) 
- type : high-relief, shell-limestone (Muschelkalk), created in Frankfurt in 1926                   

 


Left: in 1938 Grauel completed his famous limewood triptychon ‘Friede, Tapferkeit, Gerechtigkeit’ (‘Peace’, ‘Courage’ and ‘Justice‘) a work which was commissioned by the Reichsluftfahrtministeriums (Ministry of Aviation) and destined for the officers’ mess of an airbase. In the same year he received -for this triptych which was 2.15 meters high- the Art Prize of the City of Berlin. The triptych was also put on display at the Great German Art Exhibition in 1938. Depicted in ‘Die Kunst im dritten Reich’, 1937; in 'Westermanns Monatshefte', 1939, in 'Die Kunst im Dritten Reich', 1976, by Reinhard Müller-Mehlis and in 'Der Holz- und Steinbildhauer', 1942.
Right: 'Friede, Tapferkeit, Gerechtigkeit', depicted in 'Das Bild', 1940.
Below: detail of 'Tapferkeit'. Depicted in 'Neue Deutsche Bildschnitz-Kunst', 1943.
  




Anton Grauel, 'Aufbruch' ('Breakup'). Relief created in Donaustein for an airbase. Size 4,3 meter by 2,12 meter. Depicted in 'Der Holz- und Steinbildhauer', 1942.



Left and below: Anton Grauel in his atelier, 1943. Left on the upper photo the relief ‘Neues Leben’ (‘New Life’), displayed at the GDK 1943, room 32.
Right: 'Neues Leben', created in 'Untersberger Marble'. Depicted in 'Der Holz- und Steinbildhauer', 1944 ('1943, ausgeführt in Untersberger Marmor'). 
    




Anton Grauel, ‘Kniende’ (‘Neeling’), displayed at the GDK 1943, room 38, and ’Erhebung’ (‘Elevation’), created 1939, displayed at the GDK 1941, room 28.


Left: Anton Grauel, 'Werbung' ('Proposal'), marble. Created in 1927 at the Städel Institut of Art in Frankfurt. The sculpture, located in his atelier, was destroyed during a bombing of Berlin in August 1943.
Right: 'Werbung' depicted in 'Der Holz- und Steinbildhauer', 1944.
  


Anton Grauel, ‘Kriegerdenkmal in Bad-Soden’ (World War I Memorial in Bad-Soden), 1930. A young man from Bad Soden stood as a model for the bronze sculpture.
  


Anton Grauel, ‘Barbara‘, 1939, wooden sculpture, commissioned by the Ministery of Aviation ('Im Auftrag des Reichsluftfahrtministeriums‘). Depicted in ‘Kunst im Deutschen Reich’, 1939.
Saint Barbara was an early Christian saint and martyr. She is often portrayed with miniature chains and a tower. As one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers, Barbara continues to be a popular saint in modern times, perhaps best known as the patron saint of armourers, artillerymen, military engineers, miners and others who work with explosives because of her old legend's association with lightning, and also of mathematicians.
  


Anton Grauel, ‘Bogenschütze‘ (‘Archer‘), 180 cm high basswood relief. ‘Im Auftrag des Reichsluftfahrtministeriums‘ (‘commissioned by the Ministery of Aviation’). Placed at a Luftwaffe base (‘In einem Standort der Luftwaffe’). Depicted in 'Westermanns Monatshefte', 1939. Also depicted in 'Der Holz- und Steinbildhauer', 1943.
Left: 'Bogenschüzte', depicted on the cover of 'Die Kunst für alle', 1940.
  

'Bogenschütze', in the atelier of Anton Grauel in Berlin, April 15, 1938.



Anton Grauel, 'Die Wächter' ('The Guards'). Reliefs created in untersberger marble for an airbase. Depicted in 'Der Holz- und Steinbildhauer', 1942.




Left: Anton Grauel, 'Sieger' ('Victor'), bronze, height 70 cm, created in 1935. GDK 1938, room 8. Bought by Hitler for 1.600 Reichsmark and placed in the Neue Reichskanzlei.
Right: 'Sieger' located in the Neue Reichskanzlei (close up).
Below: ‘Sieger’ in the Neue Reichskanzlei. Depicted in Die Kunst im Deutschen Reich', 1939. The text below the photo reads: 'Verbindungshallen im Westlichen Verwaltungsbau, Voss Strasse 6' (hall in the west-part of the Reichskanzlei). 
   


What happened to the art Hitler purchased at the Great German Art Exhibitions?
With his insatiable passion for collecting art, Hitler was the most important purchaser of works from the GDKs. Every year, several times, he visited the Haus der Deustchen Kunst. From 1937 to 1944 he bought in total 1316 works at the GDKs.  
Hitler’s mass art purchases were mostly undertaken without a plan regarding the future location of the works. He only had a specific usage in mind from the start for a few of these works of art. The majority of the paintings and sculptures acquired at the GDKs faced an uncertain future. They were stored at the Haus der Deutschen Kunst until further notice (some were eventually taken to the Führerbau).  
Below we describe the fate of a limited number of artworks which were - as an exception- given a special destination by Hitler:
1. 144 paintings, sculptures and graphic works were bought by Hitler in 1938; they were transported to Berlin and placed in the Neue Reichskanzlei under construction, which was completed in January 1939. The list of 144 works (in our possession) is not exhaustive. Hitler did buy more works at the GDK in 1938, and in later years, which were also placed in the Reichskanzlei (like 'Sieger' by Anton Grauel).
2. In 1939 Hitler gave 10 works of art to the Jagdmuseum in Munich: works by Carl von Dombroswki, Ludwig Eugen, Felix Kupsch, Friedrich Reimann (5), Karl Wagner and Renz Waller.
3. A few pieces were used to decorate Hitler’s various offices and private residences; for example, Adolf Ziegler’s ‘Die Vier Elemente’ was famously placed over the fireplace in a salon of the Führerbau in Munich.
4. In April 1943 Hitler had 21 paintings from the GDK delivered to his Munich apartment in the Prinzregentenstrasse. This delivery included works by Anton Müller-Wischin, Franz Xaver Wolf, Freidrich Schüz, Hermann Urban, Ludwig Platzöder, Sep Happ and Sepp Meindl.
5. In 1939 Hitler bought two works, explicitly meant for his own personal use: ‘Beethoven’ by Josef Jurutka and ‘Bauernkrieg’ by Franz Xavier Wolf.


Anton Grauel, ‘Menschenpaar’ (‘Couple’). Depicted on the cover of ‘Die Kunstkammer, Illustrierte Monatszeitschrift mit amtlichen Mitteilungen’, isued by the 'Reichskammer der Bildende Künste' ('Reichchamber of Visual Arts'), Februar 1936.
 


Left: Anton Grauel, ‘Mutter‘ (‘Mother'), created in stone, height 2,20 meter. Depicted in 'Der Holz- und Steinbildhauer', 1940. A bronze cast of 2,20 meter was displayed at the GDK 1939 room 2. Also depicted in ‘Junge Bildhauer Unsere Zeit‘, Kanter-Bücher, 1940, in ‘Mortimer G. Davidson, Art in Germany 1933 - 1945‘ and in 'Westermanns Monatshefte', 1939. 
Right: 'Mutter', created in 1943 in stone 'for the NSV Gauleitung Königsberg'. Depicted in 'Der Holz- und Steinbildhauer', 1944. 
   


Left: Anton Grauel, ‘Ausschauende‘ (‘Looking out‘). GDK 1938, room 6. Depicted in ‘Junge Bildhauer Unsere Zeit‘, Kanter-Bücher, 1940 and in 'Die Kunst im Dritten Reich', 1938.
Right: Anton Grauel, ‘Kniende‘ (‘Neeling‘). Bronze 1930, depicted in 'Deutsche Plastik der Gegenwart', 1940. Displayed at the 'Ausstellung Deutsche Plastik der Gegenwart' in Warschau, 1938, and at the exhibition of the 'Preussische Akademie der Künste', 1939/1940. Also depicted in 'Die Kunst im Dritten Reich', 1938.  
  


Left: Anton Grauel, ‘Frauen am Meer‘ (‘Bathers‘), 1940.  
Right: Anton Grauel, ‘Männer in Übung‘ (‘Man in Training‘), 1940.
Both reliefs are depicted in ‘Mortimer G. Davidson, Kunst im Deutschland 1930 – 1945‘, and in 'Der Holz- und Steinbildhauer', 1942.
  


Anton Grauel, ‘Zuneigung‘ (‘Affection‘). GDK 1940, room 38. Depicted in ‘Junge Bildhauer Unsere Zeit‘, Kanter-Bücher, 1940.
Right: 'Zuneigung', current ownership unknown.
     


Anton Grauel with a cast of 'Melodie', Sinntal-Jossa, 1946. A bronze cast of Melodie was displayed at the GDK 1941 room 30.



Left: Anton Grauel, ‘Ausblickende‘ (‘Looking‘). GDK 1942, room 25. Depicted in ‘Mortimer G. Davidson, Kunst im Deutschland 1930 – 1945‘.
Right: Anton Grauel, ‘Abend’ (‘Evening’), bronze. GDK 1937, room 38. Depicted in ‘Die Kunst im dritten Reich’, 1937.
  


Left: Anton Grauel, 'Erwachen' ('Waking Up'). Depicted in 'Die Kunstkammer', 1935. A bronze copy was displayed at the GDK 1939, room 20.
Right: Anton Grauel, 'Kniende' ('Kneeling'), displayed at the exhibition 'NS.-Gemeinschaft KRAFT DURCH FREUDE', Kunsthalle Hamburg, 1938 (organized in co-operation with Amt Rosenberg). Depicted in the official exhibition catalogue.
  


Left: Anton Grauel, relief, name and date of creation unknown. An other photo of this releif was displayed at the exhibition 'Sonderausstellung zum 110. Geburtstag Anton Grauels', Heimatmuseum  Bad Soden-Salmünster, 2017. 
Right: Anton Grauel, ‘Liebende’ (‘Lovers’). GDK 1942, room 6. Depicted on numerous postcards.
  


Left: Anton Grauel, 'Weibliche Gestalt' ('Female Figure').
Middle: Anton Grauel, 'Knabe' ('Young Man').
Both figures were depicted in 'Westermann's Monatshefte', August, 1939.
Right: 'Knabe', bronze, height 57 cm. Sold by a German auction house in 2017.
      


Two releifs by Anton Grauel. Photos displayed at the exhibition 'Sonderausstellung zum 110. Geburtstag Anton Grauels', Heimatmuseum  Bad Soden-Salmünster, 2017.
  


Anton Grauel, 'St. Georg', stone figure. Currently in the possession of a museum. Height 120 cm. Displayed at the exhibition 'Sonderausstellung zum 110. Geburtstag Anton Grauels', Heimatmuseum  Bad Soden-Salmünster, 2017.
  


Left: Anton Grauel,'Neues Leben'. Limewood, height 100 cm. Depicted in 'Neue Deutsche Bildschnitz-Kunst, Erich Sperling, '1943. At that time in the possession of the NSV. Gauleitung Königsberg. Also depicted in 'Der Holz- und Steinbildhauer', 1943.
Right: Anton Grauel', 'Mutter mit Kind' ('Mother witch Child'), plaster. Size app. 30 cm. Photo displayed at the exhibition 'Sonderausstellung zum 110. Geburtstag Anton Grauels', Heimatmuseum  Bad Soden-Salmünster, 2017.
  


Left: Anton Grauel, 1964, sculpting ‘Seat of Wisdom’. Commissioned by the Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles (located at the campus of the University).
Right: Anton Grauwel (Beloit) stands beside his work, a six-foot Indiana limestone statue of the Blessed Virgin carved for the Alton (Illinois) Catholic High School. Grauel worked three months on the half-ton figure. Published in ‘The Milwaukee Sentinel‘, 5 December 1957.
  


Anton Grauel, ‘Die Auswanderer’ (‘Emigrants’), 1967, plastermodel. The photo is depicted in the book ‘Bad Soden-Salmünster, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Stadtteile’, 1983, Chapter ‘Anton Grauel’, by Dr. Georg-Wilhelm Hanna.



Anton Grauel, 14 stone panels at the 'Fine Arts Building', Faculty of Arts, Stephen F. Austin State University, Texas. The panels depict the arts of Drama, Music and Art. Created in 1959.


  




  


Anton Grauel, photo of January 1939

 

 


Anton Grauel, and his second career in the US

Anton Grauel (1897–1971), born in Bad Soden near Frankfurt, came from an old artisan family from the Electorate of Hesse. In 1911, at the age of 14, Grauel began an apprenticeship as a woodcarver in Fuldau; he worked and studied engraving/ wood sculpture under Josef Steinle until 1914. Grauel went into military services from 1916 to 1919; from 1920 to 1924 he worked in several sculpture ateliers. Between 1925 and 1931 Grauel worked with Richard Scheibe at the Städel Institute of Art in Frankfurt. He made study trips to Italy, France, Austria and Switzerland. In March 1930 Grauel’s famous War Memorial in Bad-Soden was revealed; a young man from Bad Soden stood as a model for the bronze sculpture. A year later, Grauel moved to Berlin and opened an atelier in Berlin-Südende. His expertise was stone, wood and bronze. To his circle of friends belonged Ernst Barlach, Wilhelm lehmbrück and Georg Kolbe. In 1938 Grauel completed his famous triptychon ‘Friede, Tapferkeit, Gerechtigkeit’ (‘Peace’, ‘Courage’ and ‘Justice‘) a work which was commissioned by the Reichsluftfahrtministeriums (Ministry of Aviation) and destined for the officers’ mess of an airbase. In the same year he received -for this triptych which was 2.15 meters high- the Art Prize of the City of Berlin. The triptych was also put on display at the Great German Art Exhibition in 1938. Further commissioned orders for works to be placed at airbases and other military buildings would follow. For example, in 1939 the life-size wooden sculpture of Saint Barbara, an early Christian saint and martyr often portrayed with miniature chains and a tower, perhaps best known as the patron saint of armourers, artillerymen, military engineers and miners. This sculpture was (also)commissioned by the Reichsluftfahrtministerium. In addition, the 180-centimeter high basswood relief ‘Bogenschütze’ (‘Archer’) was placed at a Luftwaffe base.
Grauel participated several times in the ‘Grosse Berliner Kunstaustellung’ (i.a. 1934, 1940/ 41) and in exhibitions organized by the ‘Preussische Akademie der Kunste’ (i.a. 'Frühjahrsausstellung', 1942). He was also represented at the exhibition 'Der NS.-Gemeinschaft KRAFT DURCH FREUDE', 1938, organised in co-operation with Amt Rosenberg; at the exhibition ‘Deutsche Bildhauer der Gegenwart’, organised by the Kunstverein Hamburg in 1940; at the ‘Kunstausstellung in Berlin’, National-Galerie/Alte Nationalgalerie, 1941, and at the 'Kunstausstellung Hilfswerk für Deutsche Bildende Kunst in der NS-Volkswohlfahrt', 1941.
At the Great German Art Exhibitions, Grauel was represented with 20 works. The bronze ‘Sieger’ was bought by Hitler for 1,600 Reichsmarks and placed in the Neue Reichskanzlei (in the 'Verbindungshallen im Westlichen Verwaltungsbau, Voss Strasse 6; depicted in Die Kunst im Deutschen Reich', 1939).
Besides the triptych, well-known works  were displayed, including ‘Zuneigung’  (‘Tenderness’), ‘Melodie’, ‘Kniende’ (‘Kneeling’), ‘Liebende’ (‘Lovers’), ‘Abend’  (‘Evening’) and the relief ‘Neues Leben’ (‘New Life’).
In August 1943 Grauels atelier and house in Berlin were bombed and destroyed; he moved to Bad Soden-Salmünster and somewhat later to the village of Jossa, near Frankfurt. We found in American documents of the ‘Office of Military Government for Greater Hesse', 16 January 1947, that Anton Grauel held his first exhibition after the war in December 1946, in the Landesbibliothek of Fulda: ‘Sculptures in stone, clay and wood; drawings and photographs of war destroyed works by a distinguished worker in the Kolbe tradition’. In 1951 Grauel emigrated to the United States, where he was naturalized as a US citizen six years later. He first went to Milwaukee (Wisconsin), and later he settled in El Segundo (California). In the US Grauel again became very successful. In the past he had specialized in human figures and decorative patterns, but in the post-war US he changed his style. His works were designed to deliver a message, to show the character of and the good in mankind. Many of them had a religious theme. Grauel held exhibitions in Wisconsin (Beloit, 1951), in Milwaukee (the Art Institute of Milwaukee, 1952), in Madison, Chicago and in Philadelphia. Several sculptures by Grauel can be found in Beloit, Wisconsin: at the Beloit College, at the Beloit State Bank (the welded steel family), in front of the Beloit Catholic High School (stone work of Christ and St. Joseph), in the YWCA lobby (the sisterhood symbol), in St. Paul’s Catholic Church (the crucifix) and in the First Congregational Church (the baptismal font and relief of the flight into Egypt).
In 1964 Grauel created the well-known ‘Seat of Wisdom’, located at the Loyola Marymount University campus in Los Angeles. Other nationally placed works include the following: 14 stone panels at the Building of the Faculty of Arts, Stephen F. Austin State University, Texas (1959); the Stations of the Cross in oak for Notre Dame University in Indiana; several Mahogany sculptures for a Virginia seminary; and various statues for institutions in Illinois and Indiana. A collection of 25 wooden sculptures and terra cotta maquettes (models for sculptures) by Grauel are housed in the Department of Archives and Special Collections of the Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles.
Anton Grauel died in 1971 in El Segundo, California.
On the occasion of his 110th birthday, the ‘Heimat- und Geschichtsverein’ in Bad Soden held a special Anton Grauel exhibition in 2017.